WP1 - Project management
- D1.1 - Project Shared Workspace (PSW) implemented and operational (M2) - CONFIDENTIAL
Public Abstract: To fulfil two fundamental internal project communication requirements: i) efficient exchange between partners of information about IMMORTAL project ii) decentralised and secured archiving of the documents generated, one independent and secured web-based communication tool: Project Shared Workplace – PSW has been implemented with a restricted access for project partners only. Among all the functionalities installed on this PSW, for now partners have a total access to the following tools: Document sharing and archiving, Meeting organization, General project communication, Online working document.
The PSW maintenance is therefore an on-going activity that will go along with the project lifetime.
WP2 - Heavy-duty Stack Degradation Assessment and Lifetime Prediction
- D2.1 - Initial protocol definition for heavy-duty accelerated stress and load profile tests (M4) - PUBLIC: PDF
Abstract: Work package 2 of the IMMORTAL project aims to define and perform a set of stack and laboratory cell ageing tests, accelerated and load profile tests, which reflect real heavy-duty truck operation. In this deliverable a first definition of accelerated stress tests (ASTs) and load profile tests (LPTs) is presented. The single cell ASTs are based on light-duty vehicle ASTs as proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy. For the short-stack AST a novel procedure focusing on platinum issolution is proposed based on voltage cycling via the electrical load on a test bench in hydrogen (anode) and limited air supply (cathode). The definition of the LPT includes load cycling, short stop, cold soak, characterization and short stop to high load.
- D2.2 - Initial protocol definition for heavy-duty accelerated stress and load profile tests (M14) - CONFIDENTIAL
Abstract: Work package 2 of IMMORTAL aims to define and perform a set of stack and laboratory cell ageing tests, accelerated and load profile tests, which reflect real heavy-duty truck operation. In this deliverable, first evaluation is presented of accelerated stress tests (ASTs) and load profile tests (LPTs). The material investigated was IMMORTAL baseline membrane electrode assembly (MEA), as provided by Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells. Single cell ASTs were executed and evaluated, varying several stressors via a design of experiment approach. LPTs were performed on both single cells and short stacks and after testing, various characterisation techniques were applied, including differential cell tests and MEA cross sections.
- D2.3 - Second end-of-testing analysis of initial HD-specific MEAs (M25) - CONFIDENTIAL
Abstract: Work package 2 of the IMMORTAL project aims to define and perform a set of stack and laboratory cell ageing tests, accelerated and load profile tests, which reflect real heavy-duty truck operation. In this deliverable, evaluation is presented of accelerated stress tests (ASTs) and load profile tests (LPTs). The materials investigated were IMMORTAL baseline membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and the IMMORTAL Gen1 MEA, as provided by Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells. Beginning-of-life performance was first assessed in differential single cells. Single cell ASTs were executed and the MEAs benchmarked against each other. LPTs were performed on both single cells and short stacks, and after testing, various characterisation techniques were applied, including differential cell tests and electron microscopic observations of MEA cross sections. In summary, IMMORTAL Gen1 MEAs showed initially higher electrochemical activity with further optimisation potential under high current operation, while the durability of upcoming IMMORTAL MEAs requires further improvement to meet the project target of 30,000 h projected lifetime.
- D2.4 - Final Protocol definition for heavy-duty accelerated stress tests and load profile tests (M30) - PDF
Abstract: Work package 2 of the IMMORTAL project aims to define and perform a set of stack and laboratory cell ageing tests, accelerated and load profile tests, which reflect real heavy-duty truck operation. In this deliverable a final definition of accelerated stress tests (ASTs) and load profile tests (LPTs) is presented. The single cell ASTs are identical to the ASTs defined in IMMORTAL deliverable report D2.1. The definition of the LPT includes load cycling, short stop, cold soak, characterization, and short stop to high load.
WP3 - Robust, High Performance Catalysts and Catalyst Layers
- D3.1 - Cathode catalyst with better retention of ECSA and equivalent or higher mass activity than the reference catalyst (M9) - CONFIDENTIAL
Public Abstract: A set of cathode catalysts were produced in the first 12M period of IMMORTAL to explore options that led to improved durability. The CNRS group focused on the synthesis of Pt-rare earth alloys supported on carbon. Pt-Gd/C nanoalloys were prepared using a synthesis recipe adapted from the literature. Combined spectroscopic techniques and electron microscopy analyses revealed a core-shell morphology with a Pt-Gd alloy core surrounded by a Pt-rich overlayer. The ORR mass activity, measured in a rotating disc electrode, of PtxGd/C surpassed the Pt/C Reference catalyst and, more importantly, this novel electrocatalyst presented a better ECSA and mass activity retention after the accelerated degradation test in comparison to the Reference catalyst, achieving one of the objectives of WP3 of IMMORTAL.
JMFC progressed the synthesis of Pt-rare earth alloys and also 50%PtNi/C cathode catalysts. The Pt-rare earth alloys produced so far did not provide a kinetic benefit in 50 cm2 single cells and further development is needed. However, the results gave evidence that the 50%PtNi/C cathode catalyst developed in WP3 had a similar decay in mass activity as the Reference Pt/C catalyst, and that the extent of this decay can be reduced with the use of a recovery protocol which boosts PtNi/C mass activity.
When applying the same protocol to the Pt/C Reference catalyst, a very minor increase in mass activity was observed. Post-mortem analysis indicated the formation of PtNi/C crystals at the cathode-membrane interface. Overall, the 50%PtNi/C developed in WP3 currently matches the project Reference Pt/C catalyst and its durability can be improved with the use of a recovery protocol.
D3.1 therefore provides evidence of two catalysts produced in the project, 30% PtxGd/C and 50%PtNi/C, with improved retention of catalyst mass activity demonstrated ex situ with RDE set up for 30% PtxGd/C and in 50 cm2 single cells for 50%PtNi/C.
- D3.2 - Modified support developed with improved ionomer interaction that leads to improved ionomer stability within the cathode catalyst layer (M12) - PUBLIC: PDF
Abstract: Carbon (Vulcan XC72) was functionalised with nitrogen using a N2-plasma treatment with the aim of strengthening its interaction with the PFSA ionomer, and thereby to improve the stability of the catalyst layer. By changing the reaction parameters, this approach allows introduction of up to 5% wt. nitrogen into the carbon surface in a reproducible and controlled way. XPS analysis revealed the presence of pyridinic, pyrrolic and graphitic nitrogen whatever the degree of functionalisation of the supports. Nitrogen physisorption and pore size distribution calculations confirmed that the bulk properties of carbon are not affected by the plasma treatment, which only induces surface functionalisation. Isothermal titration calorimetry allowed the quantification of the strength of the carbon/ionomer interaction, demonstrating the role of nitrogen in promoting the adsorption of the ionomer on the carbon surface. Increasing the amount of nitrogen on the carbon black strengthens the interaction with the ionomer, with potential impact on catalyst and fuel cell performance and durability.
WP4 - High Durability Membrane
- D4.1 – Initial data from fuel cell heavy duty trucks providing load frequency distribution (M4) - CONFIDENTIAL
Abstract: This report identifies the IMMORTAL reference membrane and the baseline components (ionomer and reinforcement). “Reference” refers to a membrane that is in use in industry, whereas “baseline” refers to materials that are at a certain stage of development and that represent a starting point for improvement in the future work in IMMORTAL.
- D4.3 – Initial data from fuel cell heavy duty trucks providing load frequency distribution (M15) - CONFIDENTIAL
Abstract: Membranes made with a range of ionomers were assessed with respect to BOL performance and durability. From the results, the membrane made with an ionomer that showed the best combination of performance, chemical durability and mechanical durability was chosen for IMMORTAL. This ionomer is selected for use in subsequent membrane manufacture in the IMMORTAL project to be combined with state-of-the-art reinforcements and radical scavenging additives.
WP5 - Highly Durable MEA Development
- D5.1 – Initial data from fuel cell heavy duty trucks providing load frequency distribution (M4) - CONFIDENTIAL
Abstract: A state-of-the-art MEA has been specified for the IMMORTAL short stack degradation assessment activity. The MEA has been characterised for performance and degradation using AST protocols defined in Deliverable 2.1 to act as a clear benchmark for future MEA developments. 100 MEAs will have been manufactured to provide short stack components and delivered to Bosch and AVL for stack build and testing.
- D5.2 – SoA baseline automotive components assessment in HD conditions (M12) - CONFIDENTIAL
Abstract: This work reports results from the characterisation of the State of the Art (SoA)IMMORTAL Baseline MEA. The MEA was characterised for performance and degradation using accelerated stress test and load profile test (LPT) protocols defined in Deliverable 2.1 and WP2 respectively. Furthermore, physical, and chemical characterisation of the SoA Baseline MEA was carried out using SEM-EDX, TEM and EPMA analysis. In addition, the chemical and mechanical stability of the IMMORTAL SoA membrane is reported. Subscale and stack LPT data are compared in terms of voltage decay.
- D5.3 – Characterisation of SOA baseline automotive components in HD conditions (M12) - PUBLIC: PDF
Abstract: This report documents the work carried out to characterise the IMMORTAL baseline membrane electrode assembly (MEA), a state-of-the-art MEA designed for heavy-duty operation. The MEA was characterised for performance in both sub-scale single cell and stack operation using load profile tests (LPT). The MEA was additionally characterised by accelerated stress tests (AST) and post-mortem analysis of the catalyst layer to allow identification of degradation mechanisms from stack level load profile tests. The growth of the Pt particles appeared to occur differently in the stack LPT tests compared to the ASTs; it was, therefore, concluded that the AST could not fully predict LPT degradation.
WP6 - HD Powertrain Validation and System Recommendations
- D6.1 – Initial data from fuel cell heavy duty trucks providing load frequency distribution (M12) - PUBLIC: PDF
Abstract: The development of high durability and performance MEAs for heavy-duty trucks requires the design of load profile testing adapted to the specific application. Several real-life truck missions were selected and used for the simulation of commercial heavy-duty trucks of various gross vehicle weights, electrified powertrain configurations, ambient conditions, and fuel cells. The simulation of such missions provided a significant number of load profiles for the fuel cell stack. Based on appropriate selection criteria a small number of load profiles were selected which, in turn, will be used to produce the desired load profile testing procedures.
WP7 - Communication, Dissemination and Maximising Impact
- D7.1 - Project website (M3) - PUBLIC - PDF
Abstract: The IMMORTAL project website is designed to fulfil project communication and dissemination needs for the benefit of the whole scientific community and the public through relevant information including:
All the partners will collectively participate in the dissemination objective of the website by providing up-to-date information
- project overall objectives, partner & work packages information
- project activities: news, meetings
- project progress: technical publications, conference presentations, public domain reports
- project resources: links, related events …
- project contact information
- D7.2 - Dissemination and knowledge management protocol (M4) - CONFIDENTIAL
Abstract: This report presents the dissemination protocol for the IMMORTAL project, the procedure for “Open Access” to peer reviewed research articles, internal rules, information on support from the EU members and the strategy for Knowledge Management within the project.